Major People, Places, Events, Dates, Battles


MAJOR PEOPLE


Abraham: (1812-1637 BC) A pagan moon worshipper who live in Ur of the Chaldees near the Persian Gulf. He was called by God to go to the Promised Land with his wife Sarah, and became the first patriarch in the Bible. Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, and was rewarded for being prepared to do so. He is considered by Jewish people as the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac, and by Muslims as the father of Arab peoples through his son Ishmael. By Christians Abraham is considered the father of all who have faith in Jesus, because it was with Abraham that God made his covenant, promising that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars in heaven. Both Peter and Paul state that Christians are the true descendants of Abraham.


Alexander the Great: (356 BC-323 BC) Alexander was the son of Philip the Great of Macedonia and his first wife, Olympia. He conquered most of the known world from Turkey to Egypt and parts of western India. His goal was to spread the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.


Alexander VI (1431-1503)-- First of the secular popes. Spanish cardinal of the de Borgia family who bought his way into the papacy. Was known for his immorality and his many illegitimate children.


Alfred the Great: (ruled Wessex, England 871-899 AD) King of Wessex who (1) defeated the Danes in York, (2) codified People’s Law (Lex/Rex) of the Anglo-Saxons, (3) composed “Book of the Law of Moses (Libre ex lege Moise), (4) composed first Doomsday Book (census for taxation purposes).


Alopen: First known Christian missionary to China. Alopen was a Nestorian Christian priest from Syria who traveled to China in 635 AD where he was embraced by Taizong, the emperor of the Tang Dynasty and proclaimed the Priest of the Empire. In 638 Taizong authorized building of 50-60 churches. Alopen translated the Bible into Chinese. When the dynasty was overthrown by Princess Wu, Christians were killed and churches destroyed.


Aristotle (383-322 BC)-- one of the three Great Philosophers of ancient Greece. Aristotle is referred to as the father of the scientific method, because, contrary to his teacher, Plato, he taught that the material world was the essence of reality -- reality was what you could weigh, measure, touch, see. He was the tutor of Alexander the Great when Alexander as a boy, and himself a native Macedonian.


Athanasius (296-373 AD) -- Bishop of Alexandria who championed the trinitarian view of the Godhead against Arius. Athanasius’ position won the day at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD.


Augustus : (63 BC – 14 AD) Grandnephew of Julius Caesar, Octavian was a member of the second triumvirate together with Mark Anthony and Caesarion. He defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium and was appointed the first emperor of Rome (27 BC – 14 AD) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Augustus ordered the census to be taken of the Roman world, which resulted in Mary and Joseph going to Bethlehem to register for the census, and there Jesus was born to fulfill OT prophecy that the Messiah would be of the line of David and would be born in Bethlehem.


Boccaccio (1313-1375) -- The Decameron -- 100 short novels containing bawdy stories, stories from erotic to tragic. One is story of a group of seven young women and three young men who fled from plague-ridden Florence for a villa outside of Naples. To pass the time, each member of the party tells one story for every one of the ten nights spent at the villa. Famous Women -- first literary work devoted entirely to women -- important women of history and of myth -- 106 women featured -- some bad women included in order to increase desire for virtue in the reader


Brutus: (85-42 BC) Companion and ally of Julius in the Battle of Pharsalus against Pompey. He later assassinated Julius on the floor of the Senate in the belief that Julius has taken upon himself too much power at the expense of the Senate.


John Calvin: (1533) French lawyer and university professor who discovers the teachings of Luther. Flees Paris and enters Geneva in 1533. Writes Institutes of the Christian Religion in attempt to systematize teachings of Luther. Founder of Presbyterianism. Impacts France, Hungary, Germany, England, Scotland, the Netherlands.


Christ, Jesus: (c. 8-4 BC - 29 AD) The Messiah, the Son of God, the Incarnate One, the Savior of sinners. Jesus lived on earth for 33 years, was crucified by the Jews under the authority given by the Romans under Tiberius. He proved his identity by being raised from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion.


Caligula: Third in the Julian Line after Octavian and Tiberius. He was considered insane. He appointed his horse to the Senate, and generally led to the confusion in the Empire.


Castiglione (1471-1529) -- diplomat, soldier, courtier, author -- The Courtier. Sent by Clement VII to Spain as papal ambassador and watchdog. Developed friendship with Charles V of Holy Roman Empire.  Failed to alert pope of Charles' plan to sack Rome in 1527 for its many sins. As a very experience courtesan felt it necessary to counter the Middle Ages concept of the perfect court gentlemen. No longer enough to be a brave knight. Now required to be educated, cultured, well rounded in all areas.


Catherine the Great (1729-1796) -- German princess who became at the death of her husband Empress of Russia. Catherine is considered to be one of the enlightened monarchs. During her reign Russia expanded rapidly into the Ottoman-held countries, Poland, Alaska, and Russian America along the Pacific Coast (present-day Oregon).


Catherine de Medici (1519-1585) -- Wife of Henry II of France. Upon his death she wielded much power during the reign of her young son, Henry III, until he reached maturity. Catherine secured Cardinal Richelieu to serve as regent for Henry.


Chiang Kai Shek: (1887 - 1975)  Chiang was the leader of the Chinese Republic after the defeat of the Japanese in 1945 by the Western Allies. He was defeated by Mao Tse Dung in 1948 and fled with his army and Christian wife to Taiwan where they established, with American aid, the Republic of Taiwan.


Charles Martel (“The Hammer”): Rallied Frankish forces at Tours in 732 AD to defeat the Moors who crossed the Pyrenees Mountains from Spain in their attempt to invade and conquer Europe for Islam. He was the grandfather of Charlemagne.


Charles the Great (Charlemagne): Grandson of Charles Martel. Crowned first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (800 AD). Conquered the Germanic tribes and united most of Western Europe.Retired in 813 AD.


Charles V: King of Spain who becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Tries Luther at Worms (1521) for heresy. Almost persuaded to become Protestant, but fears loss of power. Nephew of Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII, and pressures pope to deny Henry’s request for marriage annulment. Sacks Rome and imprisons the Pope (1527).


Churchill, Winston: Prime Minister of Great Britain in World War II.


Claudius: (10-54 AD) Fourth in the Julian Line of Emperors. Married Agripinna, the mother of Nero, who influenced him to adopt Nero as his son, thus qualifying Nero to succeed Claudius as emperor. Claudius was a competent emperor, but was assassinated by Agrippina so that Nero could assume the throne.


Clement VII (1478-1534) -- Last of the secular popes during the Italian Renaissance. Sided with Venice and the Papal States against Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire. Charles V sacked Rome in 1527 and imprisoned Clement. Clement consequently feared opposing Charles V when Henry VIII sought a divorce from Catherine of Aragon, the aunt of Charles. Clement’s refusal to grant the divorce drove Henry to separate from Rome.


Cleopatra: (c.67 BC–30 BC) Queen of Egypt who was aided in her struggle against her brother by Julius Caesar. She became Julius’ lover and bore a son, Caesarion. She also was the lover of Mark Anthony, bearing him three sons,  after the death of Julius, and aided Anthony with her Egyptian navy in Battle of Actium against Octavian. She fled the battle and returned to Egypt where she committed suicide. She was a Greek, a descendant of Ptolemy, a Greek general who conquered Egypt under Alexander the Great. She was the last of the Pharaohs of Egypt. She refused to learn Egyptian and spoke Greek, the reason the Rosetta Stone was in both Egyptian and Greek.


Colbert (1619-1683) -- Father of French mercantilism, the first economic theory to replace feudalism. Minister of Finance under Louis XIV of France. Promoted the development of New France (Canada) and made it illegal for colonists of New France to import goods from any other source than France. Also developed the French merchant marines. The economic health of a nation, according to Colbert, consisted of its stockpile of silver and gold.


Columbus, Christopher : (1451-1506 AD) Genoese explorer working for Spain who, in 1492, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the Americas for Spain. He took his name “Christ Bearer” seriously and viewed his journeys as missionary activity for the glory of God.


Confucius : (551-479 BC?) Chinese philosopher whose teachings are contained in the Analects, a collection of moral and social teachings, including the concepts of the filial piety, humaneness, and ritual. These translated into honoring parents and ancestors, working with all you might at whatever you have to do, and loyalty to the community and the dynasty. His real name was Kong Fu Zi.


Constantine : (274 -337 AD) Son of a Roman general and a Christian mother from the Balkans. Roman Emperor between 306 AD and 337 AD. He issued the Edict of Milan (313 AD) which outlawed the persecution of Christians and established Christianity as a legal religion in the Empire. He defeated Maximian at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 AD. He also founded the city of Constantinople (324 AD), the future capitol of the Byzantine Empire, and called the Council of Nicea in 325 AD. He was the first Christian emperor of the Empire.


Copernicus (1473-1543) -- Polish priest and scientist who first set forth the hypothesis that the earth revolved around the sun, contrary to the ancient view of Ptolmey that the sun revolved around the earth.


Crassus: (115-53 BC) Third member of the First Roman Triumverate together with Julius and Pompey. He died in Persia on his way to join in the Battle of Pharsalus. Is the general who killed Spartacus and ended the Slave Rebellion. Perhaps the wealthiest man in all of history and who gifts aided the poor young military leader in Gaul, Julius.


Leonardo Da Vinci: Italian artist, sculptor, poet, architect, engineer, and inventor of the late Italian Renaissance who is known as “the Renaissance man” because of his many varied abilities. Some of his famous works include the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and the drawing, The Vetruvian Man.


Dante (1265-1321): Father of the Italian language -- with Petrarch and Boccaccio considered one of the "three fountains" in Italian literature. Born in Florence. Wrote the Divine Comedy in Italian and not in Latin, which was revolutionary for learned authors. The Divine Comedy describes Dante's journey through Hell (Inferno), Purgatory and Paradise, guided first by the Roman poet Virgil and then by Beatrice, the subject of his love. The vision of Hell, the Inferno, is vivid for modern readers but was the section that got him into trouble. He placed the popes of his time in the Inferno with no hope of exit.


Darius I : (558 – 486BC) King of Persia who expanded his empire to extend from the Mediterranean to the Indus River. He was defeated at the Battle of Marathon by the Greeks.


Erasmus: Dutch priest who opposed the secularism and immorality of the Roman papal leadership. He is one of the major characters of the Northern Renaissance and who advocated the education of the populace in order to improve the moral and spiritual fiber of Europe. He fled to England for protection from the cardinals in Rome and was granted safety by Henry VIII. In Praise of Folly is his famed satire of the Roman Church and its non biblical teachings. He was the most renowned Greek and Latin linguist of Europe translator of the Greek and Latin editions of the Bible.


Esther: (c 505-460 BC)  A Jewish young woman whose beauty caught the attention of King Xerxes and became his wife and queen. Through her intervention, Xerxes protected the Jews in Persia from a massive massacre planned by the evil Persian military leader Haman . On another occasion she alerted Xerxes about a plot to assassinate him through information she gained from her Jewish friend Mordecai.


Ferdinand and Isabella : During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they drove out the Moors in 1492, set Spain free as a Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.


Galileo (1564-1632): Father of the heliocentric view of the solar system. Late Italian Renaissance.


Hammurabi: (c. 1700 BC) King of  Babylonia, and said to be first ruler to place laws and codes into written form, known as Hamurabi's Code.


Helen: (250-330 AD) Wife of Emperor Constantius and mother of Constantine who traveled through the Holy Lands for 3-4 years identifying many of the locations of major Bible events, including the cave in which Jesus was born in Bethlehem and the site of his crucifixion. It is claimed that she found remnants of “the true cross.” Churches were built on top of many of the sacred sites.


Henry IV (1553-1610) -- Henry of Navarre who gained the French throne as a result of the War of the Three Henrys. A Calvinist, Henry converted to Roman Catholicism in order to reign effectively in Catholic France. Issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598 granting freedom of religion to the Huguenots. Father of Louis XIII.


Henry VIII: Leader of the Tudor line of rulers in England. Through Act of Supremacy (1534 AD) pulled English churches away from Rome and established the English monarch as the head of the English Church. Divorced Catharine of Aragon in order to marry Anne Boleyn, his second of six wives. Father of Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth I.


Hippocrates : (460?-377? BC) Greek physician, considered to be the father of medicine and the ethical medical standard of treating all patients without favor or discrimination,  known as the Hippocratic Oath.


Ibn Sina : (980-1037) An Islamic court physician in Persia, who wrote two of early medicine's greatest works, The Book of Healing, a compendium of science and philosophy, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia based on the teachings of Greek physicians. The latter was widely used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance of Europe where, known as Avicenna, he was called the "prince of physicians."


Julius Caesar: (100-44 BC) Roman general in Gaul who took his troops south across the Rubicon River to deliver Rome from the tyranny of Pompey, defeating Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus. The third member of the first triumverate, Crassus, died in Persia on his was to Pharsalus. Julius was appointed Perpetual Dictator by the Senate, but was soon after assassinated by Brutus on the floor of the Senate.


Isabella d’Este (1474-1539) -- One of the three major women from the Italian Renaissance, along with Lucretia Borgia and Catherine de Medici.  Isabella was Marchess of Mantua. During her husband’s imprisonment by the French, Isabella not only ran the government of Mantua but also developed industry.


Julius II (1443-1513)-- Nephew of Alexander VI. Known as the War Pope, whose interests were military and political rather than theological. Sought the expansion in power and territory of the Papal States. Was pope at the time Martin Luther first visited Rome prior to the Reformation.


Justinian: (483-565 AD) Greatest of the Christian emperors of the Byzantine Empire, he is credited with extending the Empire to its greatest geographical rule, codifying Roman law into the Justinian Code, and building the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.


Kong Fu Zi : See Confucius


Kublai Khan : (1215-1294 AD) Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China. His wife, numerous generals, and government leaders were Christians. He was host to Marco Polo in the late 1200s.


Leonidas: (d. 480 BC) King of Sparta, who with 300 Spartans and about 1500 other Greeks held off the 100,000 troops of Xerxes at Thermopylae to the north of Athens for three days, giving the Athenians time to evacuate the city and flee to the island of Salamis to the south of Athens.


Leo X (1475-1521) -- Third of the secular popes to sit as popes during the Italian Renaissance. Leo was the pope to whom Luther hoped to bring attention the corruptions of the Roman Church. Leo, however, called for a trial for heresy and banned the works of Luther. Luther burned the papal bull  issued by Leo. Leo was leader of the Medici family.


Louis XIV (1638-1715) -- The “Sun King” or known also as the “War King”  because under his reign the French hegemony spread across Europe but also France was at war for the majority of the years he was king of France. Louis XIV moved the capitol to Versailles and built the famous Palace at Versailles. Louis XIV retracted the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and resumed persecution of the Huguenots.


Louis XVI (1754-1793) -- Louis XVI was the unresponsive king at the outset of the French Revolution. He and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were beheaded as traitors by Robespierre at the outset of the Reign of Terror in 1793.


Lucretia Borgia (1480-1519)-- Daughter of Pope Alexander VI. Infamous for her several extra marital affairs, including the birth of a son whose father was rumored to be either her father or her brother, Cesare. She was one of the few females in the Italian Renaissance to receive an excellent humanist education on a par with males.


Maria Theresa (1717-1780) -- Empress of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and last of the Habsburg Family dynasty, whose ascension to the throne was made possible by the removal of the Salic Law by her father Charles VI through the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Maria was considered one of the enlightened absolute rulers of Europe. Her rule as a female was viewed as a weakness and caused Frederick III of Prussia to risk the invasion of Silesia and the conquest of Austria in the War of Austrian Succession in 1740-1748, also known as the Seven Years War in Europe and the French and Indian War in the American colonies.


Martin Luther: German monk who discovered in his study of the Epistle to the Romans the doctrine of justification by faith. Posted 95 Thesis on church door in Wittenberg (1517 AD), tried at Worms for heresy (1521), exonerated when Charles V allows Confession of Augsburg (1530). Founder of Lutheranism. Translated New Testament into German, thereby creating a unified language for all German states.


Machiavelli (1469-1527): Italian author from Florence who wrote The Prince. He is considered the father of the idea that “the end justifies the means.” He is known primarily for his advice to rulers in The Prince that it is “better to be feared than to be loved.” His name is the basis for the term “Machiavellian,” or a person who lives by the code that the end justifies the means.


Mao Zedong : (1893-1976 AD) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Chiang Kai Shek and the Chinese Republic led by the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.

Marco Polo : (1254-1324 AD) Italian explorer and author. He lived in China for 24 years in the late 1200s  and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is the source for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period. His contacts brought to Europe’s awareness especially currency, silk fabrics, printing, and steel implements.


Mark Anthony: (83-30 BC) Member of the Second Triumvirate, together with Ocatavian and Caesarion. He and his female lover, Cleopatra, opposed Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, fled the scene, and committed suicide in Egypt.


Melanchthon: Close friend of and co-reformer with Martin Luther


Michelangelo: Florentine artist and sculptor of the late Italian Renaissance famous for his works The Pieta. David, his murals in the Sistine Chapel, and his designing of the spire of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome.


Mohammed : (570-632 AD). Orphaned as a little boy, M became a camel train worker in Arabia and married a wealthy widow, owner of camel trains. He claimed to receive revelations from Allah while meditating in a cave, and whose teachings were compiled in the Koran (Qu’uran) Claimed to be the Prophet of Allah; founder of Islam. Instituted the Five Pillars of Islam.


Thomas More (1478-1535): Assisted Henry VIII in his essay, Defence of the Seven Sacraments, which was a repudiation of Luther’s Reformation. Was a close friend of Erasmus, who dedicated his work, In Praise of Folly, to More. Opposed Henry’s slide away from Rome, refused to attend Henry’s wedding with Anne Boleyn, and as a result was put to death. His most famous work is Utopia.


Moses: (c. 1200 BC) Raised in the household of the Pharoah’s sisten, Moses forsook his royal family to defend his true, ethnic family the descendants of Jacob who had lived in Egypt for 450 years as slaves. He led the Jacobites through the Exodus to the Promised Land. At Mt. Sinai he received the Ten Commandments and is know as the Great Law Receiver.


Nero: (37-68 AD) Fifth and last in the Julian Line of Roman emperors. Nero envisioned himself to be the greatest artist, athlete, poet, and ruler of all time. He killed two of his wives, his mother, and an unborn son in bouts of rage. He murdered the apostles Peter and Paul. He blamed the burning of Rome in 64 AD on Christians and had them burned as torches to give light to his garden parties.


Paul, the Apostle: (d. 67 AD) As a member of the Sanhedrin had many early Christians imprisoned or put to death. Was converted on his way to Damascus to hunt down more Christians. Became contributor to much of the New Testament. He was missionary to the Gentiles, primarily in present-day Turkey and in Greece and Italy. He was martyred by Nero at Rome in 67 AD.


Pericles : (495 BC-429 BC) Athenian statesman and skilled orator who was leader in Athens during its golden age in the 5th century BC.  This period in Athenian history is known as “the Golden Age of Pericles.”


Petrarch (1304-1374)) -- Father of humanism in Italian Renaissance. Priest, administrator for pope, hometown in Padua, goes to Venice to escape plague, two of his children follow him. Becomes model of lyrical poetry -- First to label the Middle Ages the “Dark Ages” . Fell in love from a distance with Laura, who marries another, but to whom he wrote many love sonnets even though she was beyond his grasp -- contained in Canzoniere. As with Dante before him he wrote in the vernacular and not Latin. 366 writings, vast majority in sonnet form, a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme


Philip the Great (382-336 BC) -- King of Macedonia who was the first to unite all of the Greek states into one nation. Father of Alexander the Great. His goal was to overthrow Persia, but died before he was able to accomplish his goal.


Plato: (428-348 BC) Student of Socrates who wrote down the teachings of Socrates in the form of dialogues between Socrates and students. Plato taught that reality existed in the First Forms above this material world and all things on this earth are merely reflections of that Reality. He was esteemed by the Renaissance in Northern Europe in contrast to Aristotle who was esteemed in the Italian Renaissance.


Ptolemy : (100 -170 AD) Greek geographer, astronomer, and mathematician. His geocentric view of the universe lasted until the 16th century when it was challenged by Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo.


Pythagoras : (582-500 BC) Greek mathematician credited with the Pythagorean Theorem which states that the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.


Raphael: One of the famous Big Three of Florentine artists of the late Italian Renaissance. He is know for his many paintings of the Madonna and for his paintings within the papal apartments in Rome.


Reagan, Ronald: President of the United States whose economic and military policies brought Soviet Union to bankruptcy, bringing Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia to collapse.


Richard the Lion Heart: King of England, descendant of William of Normandy, leads third crusade; at his death his brother John became king who was forced by the English nobles to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 AD and limit the power of the king.


Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) -- Father of French Absolutism. Served as regent for the young French king Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV. Hated the Austrians and under his persuasion Louis XIV entered the Thirty Years War on the side of the Protestants to prevent Austrian dominance in Europe.


Robespierre:  French attorney, member of the revolutionary Assembly in France, and leader of the Committee of Public Safety, leader of the Jacobin Club, President of the National Assembly 1793-1794; seized almost dictatorial power over the French Revolution 17793-1794 and instigated thousands of deaths of political opponents; last person to die under the guillotine.


Roosevelt, Fraknlin D.: President of the United States during the Great Depression and World War II; served as president for three terms.


Saladin: Kurdish military leader of the Muslim forces opposing the Christian Crusaders in the Middle East. Saladin re conquered Jerusalem in 1187 AD and arrived at a truce with Richard the Lion Heart of England.


Secular Popes of Rome: During the late 15th and 16th centuries several popes occupied leadership in Rome. Their interest in things other than spiritual earned for them the name, “Secular Popes.” These popes purchased their positions by being highest bidders for the position of pope. Alexander VI, a Spanish cardinal and father of the Borgia line, fathered a number of children with his mistress and was otherwise very immoral. Julius II was known as the war pope because of his major interest in expanding the Papal States through military action. Leo X was head of the powerful Medici family of Florence and major opponent of Luther and Calvin. He authorized the selling of indulgences in Germany in order to build St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. Clement VII was so political, secular, and corrupt that he caused the sack of Rome by Charles V, who imprisoned Clement.


Shakespeare, William: famous British author of the Northern Renaissance. Among his famed works are Macbeth, King Lear, and Hamlet.


Shang Di (c. 2000 BC): The name for the God of the early Chinese who first crossed the

Himalayas into China. The early Chinese were monotheists and Shang Di resembles in many

ways the God of the Hebrews, Elohim.


Socrates: (469-399 BC) First of the three Great Philosophers of Greece, teacher of Plato, Socrates taught that all knowledge lay inherent in the human mind and is brought forth for viewing by the questions asked by a skilled teacher. This is known as the Socratic Method. The skilled teacher was, for Socrates, a true philosopher. His concept of what is true is illustrated in Plato’s The Cave.


Stalin, Joseph: Dictator who succeeded Lenin as leader of the Soviet Union from late 1920s to 1945; leader of Soviet Union during World War II and major cause for the onset of the Cold War; exterminated over 20 million persons in Soviet Union.


Stuart Family -- Ruling family in England in the 17th century that succeeded the Tudor family. Most notable were James I, James II, Charles I, Charles II and Mary of Orange.


Suleiman: (1494-1566 AD) Greatest military leader of the Islamic Ottoman Turks in their quest to invade and conquer Europe. He was Sultan of the Empire. He conquered the Balkans, most of Hungary, all of the Middle East, most of North Africa as far west as Algeria. and laid siege to Vienna. His navy ruled all of the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. He was defeated at Vienna in 1529.


Sun Yat-sen: (1886-1925) A Chinese revolutionary and first president of the new Republic of China. The Republic of China was the first representative republic in the history of China after the decline of the last (Qing) dynasty in 1912. Sun Yat Sen was a Christian and many of his government leaders were Christians. They remained in power until China was invaded by the Japanese in the early 1930s as a prelude to World War II. He fought numerous battles as president against Chinese war lords who took power in many parts of China after the fall of the Qing dynasty. On several occasions they forced his exile.


John Tetzel: a German monk who was commissioned by Leo X to travel through Germany to sell indulgences in order to raise funds to construct St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. Tetzel was opposed by Luther on biblical grounds, and by the German princes who did not want German funds to go to the “foreign” pope in Rome.


Thomas the Apostle (d. 76 AD). One of the twelve apostles, “Doubting” Thomas took the Gospel to India in 52 AD along the Malabar Coast and numerous church groups were planted. He was martyred near Madras in 76 AD.


Tiberias Augustus (42 BC - 37 AD) -- Third in the Julian line to sit as emperor of the Roman Empire. It was during his reign that Jesus was tried and crucified.


Tudor Family -- Victors in the War of Roses and whose members ruled on the  English throne in the 15th-16th centuries. Most notable were Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I.


Tyndale, William (1492-1536): English Protestant Reformer and translator of Bible into English. Influenced by Erasmus and Luther. Chased into hiding by Henry VIII and Thomas Moore who feared a fresh translation in the language of the people. He was also sought because of his The Practyse of Prelates, 1530 which opposed the divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon and subsequent marriage to Anne Boleyn. Was captured in Antwerp and burned at the stake. It is estimated that over 75% of the later King James Bible of 1611 was based upon Tyndale’s 1525 translation.



Titus: (39-81 AD) Son of Vespasian, Roman general, who took control of the siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD and destroyed both the city and the temple. He eventually became emperor of the Roman Empire.


Pope Urban II (1035-1099 AD): Issued the sermon at Clermont, France in 1095 AD that called for European Christians to mount a crusade to win back the Holy Land from the infidel Muslims.



Van Eyck: Most famous of the artists of the Northern Renaissance, native of Flanders.


Vespasian: (23-79 AD) Sent by Nero to Jerusalem in 65-66 AD to quell the Jewish uprising in Palestine. He laid waste towns and cities from Syria to Jerusalem and laid siege to Jerusalem in 69 AD. For some unknown reason he pulled back to Syria, from where he was recalled to Jerusalem to quell the chaos in Rome after the death of Nero and became Emperor, establishing the Flavian line of rulers.


William of Normandy (‘the Conqueror”): Normand prince who invaded England in 1066 AD at Battle of Hastings. Defeated his cousin, King Harold ii, and imposed feudalism on England. Confiscated all Anglo-Saxon lands and gave to invading French Normands. Instituted Ruler’s Law (Absolutism) on England.


Xerxes: (reigned 485-465 BC) Son of Darius I and king of Persia. Xerxes invaded Greece at Thermopylae in order to avenge the defeat of his father, Darius, at Marathon. Xerxes was the husband of the biblical Queen Esther. Xerxes triumphed at Thermopylae and sacked Athens. He was later defeated at the Battle of Salamis by the Athenian navy and lost 100,000 troops. He retreated through Greece, destroying many towns and farm lands on this way through the Hellespont to Persia.


MAJOR BATTLES


Actium (31 BC) Octavian defeated the combined naval forces of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra. He returned to Rome and was appointed the first Emperor of the Roman Empire by the Senate.


Adrianople 1 (378 AD) The Emperor Valens was defeated by the Goths, marking the beginning of the end for the Roman Empire in the East. It was consolidated into the Byzantine Empire. The Goths moved westward into Europe and eventually led to the sacking of Rome. The Goths were angry that Valens, having assisted them in 376 to flee from the Huns, did not provide them with sufficient food to survive.


Adrianople 2 (718 AD): What the Battle of Tours was for Western Europe the Battle at Adrianople was for Eastern Europe. Had the Christian Byzantine forces not defeated the Islamic forces in this battle, Islamic armies would had advanced unimpeded through the Balkans and into Italy. As a result, Constantinople remained a major Christian center in the east for the next 700 years until its final fall to the Ottomans in 1453.


Arbela (331 BC): Also known as the Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander the Great defeated the Persian armies under  and effectively ended the Persian rule over the known world. It marked the beginning of the end for the Persian empire. Persian King Darius offered Alexander half of the Persian Empire if he would halt the battle. Alexander refused the offer and defeated the Persians.


Constantinople (1454) 90,000 Turks under Mohammad II laid siege to the city defended by 10,000 Byzantines under Constantine XI. The lead troops of Mohammad were 20,000 Janissaries, young men taken as slaves from the Christian lands controlled by the Turks as part of the Jidzia, or tax, on the Christians. All inhabitants of the city were either killed or sold into slavery by the Turks. The Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque.


Hastings (1066 AD): William of Normandy invaded England as a result of the dispute over succession to the English throne. The Norman army defeated King Harold on the field at Hasting. The Norman victory introduced feudalism to England, transferred property rights from the English to the French, and imposed absolute rule on England. Absolutism was not overthrown until the defeat of King John and the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 AD.


Siege of Jerusalem (70 AD) Titus laid siege for one full year. Thousands of Jews were trapped in the city during the Holy Week. Food supplies ran out. A civil war between the Hellenists, the Zealots, and the Pharisees broke out. Roman troops destroyed the city and the temple. All inhabitants were either killed or enslaved.


Lepanto (1571 AD): Major sea battle between the Ottoman navy and the combined navies of  Christian Europe (Spain, Papal States, Venice, Genoa, Savoy, Malta) off the coast of Greece. Over 500 ships entered the battle. The Christian fleet extended for three miles when assembling off the coast of Italy. The Ottomans lost 250 ships and 25,000 men killed and 3,500 wounded in the one-day battle, which effectively destroyed the Ottoman naval power in the Mediterranean.


Marathon (490 BC) King Darius of Persia attempted to invade and conquer Greece, Persia’s ancient enemy. Darius was defeated by the Greeks. A runner took the news about 26 miles back to Athens.


Marne (1914 AD): The defeat of the German army at Marne by the French and English halted the drive of Germany into France. It forced both sides into trench warfare on the Western Front for four years and effectively brought the Western War to a stalemate.


Mecca (630 AD) Mohammed had earlier been expelled from Mecca due to his crazy claims to the true prophet of the only true god, and than all the polytheistic gods were false. Finally Mohammad was able to return to Mecca, conquer its inhabitants with the sword, and claim Mecca as the true center for worship of Allah. The Kasbah was converted from a pagan shrine to the Black Rock where the Haij was to be performed each year.


Milvian Bridge (312 AD) Here Constantine defeated Maxentius just outside the city of Rome.


Invasion of Normandy (1944): A combined Allied invasion at Normandy broke the back of German forces in France, resulting in the liberation of France, restoring of the Third Republic, and began the beginning of the end for Germany on the Western Front during World War II.


Pharsalus (48 BC) Julius and his allies defeated Pompey and his army.


Salamis (480 BC) The Athenian navy trapped the Persian fleet in a narrow bay at Salamis and defeated the navy of Xerxes.100,000 Persians were killed. The Persian navy never recovered and Persia never attempted another invasion of Greece.


Spanish Armada (1588): The destruction of Philip II’s massive flotilla by English ships and heavy storms in the English Channel effectively ended efforts by Continental European Catholic monarchs from overthrowing Queen Elizabeth and the Protestant government in England. Had Phillip been successful, England would have been dominated by Spain and other Catholic nations, changing dramatically the founding of the American colonies.


Stalingrad (1941-1942): Defeat of the German army here put a halt to Hitler’s quest for world domination and marked the beginning of the end for the Nazis in World War II. During the battle 1.5 million lives were lost and 91,000 Germans taken prisoner. Germany never mounted another offensive battle again. Stalingrad had fallen briefly to the Germans but the fierce winter prevented reinforcing the army with men, food, or military supplies.


Teutoburg Forest (9 AD): A combined Germanic army under Arminius defeated three legions of Roman troops in a decisive battle that effectively halted control over the German tribes by the Roman Empire west of the Rhine River and north of the Danube River. This was one of the most decisive losses experienced by then Roman legions. Emperor Augustus reportedly banged his head against a wall when learning of the major defeat.


Thermopylae (480 BC) 100,000 Persians under Xerxes were held off by 300 Spartans and 1500 other Greeks under Leonidas for three days, allowing the Athenians time to evacuate the city. All of the Spartan defenders were killed.


Tours (732 AD) Charles Martel defeated the Caliph from Spain and 60,000 Islamic infantry and calvary. Martel fought only with infantry and used a block formation with his troops so that all four sides were equally defended against the more numerous Moslems and their cavalry.


Siege of Vienna (1529 AD) Suleiman, Sultan of the Ottomans, laid siege to Vienna in the furtherest extend of Ottoman intrusion into Europe. Suleiman;s goal was to conquer all of Hungary, then held by the Habsburg Empire.  His defeat by the Habsburgs under Ferdinand I marked the beginning of the end of what was previously an almost unstoppable intrusion by the Ottomans into Central Europe and the Balkans for over a century.


Battle of Vienna (1689 AD) The Ottomans had been supplying military and financial assistance to the Protestants and others struggling under the Catholic Habsburgs. This led to the liberation of much of upper Hungary under a Protestant king. The plan was to capture Vienna, give it the Hungarians, and then the Ottomans would be unchecked in their invasion of the other Habsburg lands. The king of Poland with assistance from Germany, totaling 87,000 troops,  defeated the 150,000 man army of the Ottomans. The Lithuanian Catholic troops and allies from Lorraine invaded Hungary and defeated the Protestant king Thokoly. Louis XIII of France took the opportunity to invade Alsace and Southern German states while they were fighting the Ottomans. This resulted in a heated rivalry between the Germanys and the Hapbsburgs against France for several centuries.


Waterloo (1815 AD)


Napoleon Bonaparte and his French Imperial Army was defeated near this Belgian town by a combined British-Allied army under British Duke Wellington and Prussian General von Bucher. This brought to an end the 100 days of Napoleon’s frantic attempt to re establish French control over Europe after his escape from exile on the island of Elba. His defeat at Waterloo resulted in his final exile on the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean where he died in 1821.


Yorktown (1781): After the French fleet had bottled up the English fleet along the Yorktown Peninsula, the combined land forces of America and  France led by George Washington and de Rouchbeau defeated the English under Cornwallis. The surrender of Cornwallis effectively ended the American War of Independence and resulted in the Treaty of Paris in 1783.


MAJOR PLACES


  1. Mecca


  1. Hagia Sophia


  1. Hellespont


  1. Black Sea


  1. Mediterranean Ocean


  1. Aegean Sea


  1. Vienna


  1. Rome


  1. Jerusalem


  1. Damascus


  1. Persian Gulf


  1. Nile River Valley


  1. Yellow River Valley


  1. Indus River Valley


  1. Tigris/Euphrates Valley


  1. Tours


  1. Fertile Crescent


  1. Egypt


  1. India


  1. Iraq


  1. Persia (Iran)


  1. England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales (British Isles)


  1. Russia


  1. France


  1. Spain


  1. Germany


  1. Italy


  1. Florence, Rome, Venice, Milan, Genoa in Italy


  1. Athens


  1. Sparta


  1. Corinth


  1. Macedonia


  1. Turkey


MAJOR DATES


490 BC -- Battle of Marathon


480 BC -- Battle of Salamis


c. 400 BC -- Socrates


  1. c.300 BC -- Confucius


23 BC -- End of the Roman Republic / crowning Octavian as first emperor of the Rmpire


  1. c.33 AD -- Death of Jesus


64 -- Burning of Rome


64-67 AD -- first persecution of Christians by the Empire


70 AD -- Destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple


312 AD -- Battle of the Milvian Bridge and defeat of Maxentius by Constantine


313 -- Edict of Milan by Constantine


323 -- Founding of Constantinople


325 -- Council of Nicea


380 -- Edict of Theodocius declaring Christianity the official religion of the Empire


410/476 -- Sackings of Rome and end of western Roman Empire


632 -- Death of Mohammed


711 -- Islam conquers Spain


732 -- Battle of Tours


800 -- Crowning of Charlemagne


813 -- Death of Charlemagne and end of empire


890 -- Alfred the Great and People’s Law in England


1054 -- The Great Schism between Rome and Constantinople


1066 -- Battle of Hastings; William of Normandy imposes feudalism on England


1095 -- Urban II preaches sermon to start the Crusades


1099 -- First Crusade captures Jerusalem


1176 -- Saladin recaptures Jerusalem


1215 -- Magna Carta


1250 -- Mongol Empire at its height in Europe and Middle East


1517 -- Luther’s 95 Thesis


1533 -- Calvin converted


1534 -- Henry VIII and Act of Supremacy


1536 -- Calvin to Geneva


1544 -- Henry VIII and Act of Succession


1564 -- French Huguenots establish Fort Caroline in Florida


1565 -- Spanish establish St. Augustine in Florida


1559-1603 -- Reign of Elizabeth I


1588 -- Spanish Armada


1598 -- Edict of Nantes by Henry IV granting Protestants freedom of worship in France


1603 -- Jamestown


1620 --  Pilgrims at Plymouth


1685 -- Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV, grandson of Henry IV


1688 -- Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights


1776-1782 -- American War for Independence


1783 -- Treaty of Paris


1789-1815 -- French Revolution and First French Empire


1812 -- War between Great Britain and the U.S.A.


1848 -- Year of Revolutions in Europe


1860-1865 -- War Between the States (USA)


1870--1871 -- Franco-Prussian War


1898 -- Spanish American War


1904 -- Sino-Russian War


1912 -- End of Ming Dynasty and First Democratic President in China


1914-1918 -- World War I


1917 -- Russian Revolution


1918 -- Treaty of Versailles


1939-1945 -- World War II


1945-1989 -- Cold War


1948 -- Communist Revolution in China


1950-1953 -- Korean Conflict


1955-1975 -- Vietnam War


1989 -- Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe


1991 -- Communism outlawed in Russia


2001 -- Beginning of War on Terrorism